The wastewater generated during sheep wool processing poses serious environmental and economic concerns, as effective treatment is required to remove impurities prior to the discharge or recycling of water (Holkar et al., 2016; Poole and Cord-Ruwisch, 2004). Due to the detrimental impact of existing sheep wool processing techniques, the annual production of wool in the textile industry has been reduced to 75% in European sheep farms (Sabatini et al., 2019). Therefore, scientists and environmentalists are seeking alternatives to conventional water-based treatment technologies in sheep wool processing.
Wool contains keratin, which is strengthened by disulfide bonds from sulfur-containing amino acids. The non-protein fraction consists of an outer lipid hydrophobic layer, which is known as lanolin or wool wax (Fiore et al., 2019; Sabatini et al., 2018). The utilization of wool on floors and car seats minimizes shock risks upon contact with grounded objects because of its resistance to wear and tear due to its mechanical and chemical properties (Bharath et al., 2016).
The common resident floras in the fleece are Pseudomonas, Proteus, Staphylococcus, and Bacillus. Mycotic dermatitis or “lumpy wool” is caused by the bacterium Dermatophilus congolensis (Saleh et al., 2019). It is often encountered in humid areas where humidity keeps the wool from drying.